Habitat – desert
Niche – insectivore
Favorite Food – ants
Length – 6 inches or less
Status – Some Species Threatened
Threats – habitat destruction, pesticides, invasive ant species
Of all the animals that can scrape out a living in the world’s deserts, lizards are among the most adapted to such harsh environments. Their hard scales provide a barrier against water loss and the abrasiveness of wind and sand. They obtain most of their water from their diverse diets and can survive long stretches of time without food. Horned lizards are among the most successful group of desert reptiles and comprise 14 different species of lizards that live in the arid regions of North and Central America.
As their name implies, horned lizards have a number of spiked projections on their head, body, and tail. In addition to their flattened, toad-like bodies, horned lizards are often referred to as horned toads or horny toads. The horns are used in courtship displays and also act as a defense against predators. However, it’s their rough, mottled skin blending seamlessly with their rocky surroundings that affords them the best protection. As long as the lizard remains still, it is virtually invisible to most predators. Some horned lizards possess more specialized defenses, like shooting blood from the eyes to confuse and frighten predators.
One of the most pressing issues of life in the desert is regulating body temperature. Like all reptiles, horned lizards are at the mercy of their surroundings when it comes to their internal heat. In order to maintain optimal temperature in the desert land of extremes, horned lizards will burrow into the sand or soil to avoid the murderous midday sun and cold temperatures at night. As the morning sun creeps over the horizon, they will raise their heads out of their burrow in order to first warm their brains. As soon as all systems are operational in the nervous system, horned lizards will then remove the rest of their bodies from the sand and begin their daily routines of basking in the sun and searching for ants to gobble up.
Horned lizards are still common across the deserts of the Southwestern United States and Mexico. Since they live in an environment that is inhospitable to man, they have been spared much of the trouble that has befallen many of their lizard relatives in other regions of the world. However, human development in arid regions still poses a looming threat.